The Brown-Driver-Briggs-Gesenius Hebrew and English Lexicon

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A Hebrew and English Lexicon (Brown-Driver-Briggs)

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Driver, and Charles Briggs, spent over twenty years researching, writing, and preparing this lexicon. Based upon the classic work of Wilhelm Gesenius, the "father of modern. Hebrew lexicography," BDB gives not only dictionary definitions for each word, but relates each word to its Old Testament usage and categorizes its nuances of meaning. Briggs, S. Payne Smith and the Lexicon of Brockelmann have been always at hand, with Castell accessible in case of need.

Duval and Nestle also have been laid under contribution. The Aramaic of the Targums and other Jewish-Aramaic documents, as well as the post-Biblical Hebrew have been examined in the dictionaries of Buxtorf, J. Levy, Jastrow, and Dalman, the collections of Bacher, the grammars of Strack, Marti, and Dalman, the editions of Lagarde, Berliner, and Merx, as well as the older publications. In the Aramaic Appendix frequent references have been made not only to the grammars of Kautzsch and Dalman, but also to Krauss's Griechische u. Adler, G.

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Margoliouth, I. Cooke, and the Glossary of S. The important Aramaic texts from Egypt, of the fifth century BC which have been just published by Cowley and Sayce, have also been utilized for the Aramaic Lexicon. The lexical matter of Southern Arabia has been gathered from the Corpus, from the inscriptions published by Osiander, M. Egyptian parallels have been adduced mainly form Wiedemann, Bondi, Erman, Steindorff and Spiegelberg, with occasional reference to Lepsius, Brugsch and Ebers. In all these departments, where active work is going on, fugitive materials have of course been found in many places, often scattered and sometimes remote.

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It has been the purpose to recognize good textual emendations, but not to swell the list by conjectures which appeared to lack a sound basis. There is still much to do in textual criticism, and much which has been done since the printing of this Lexicon began would receive recognition if extensive revision were now possible.

Among the critical discussion of the Hebrew texts which have been frequently used are those of Geiger, Graetz, Wellhausen Samuel, Minor Prophets , Perles, Oort, Cornill Ezekiel, Jeremiah , Beer Job , Driver Samuel , Burney Kings , the several Parts of the Polychrome Bible, the Notes by translators in Kautzsch's Altes Testament, as well as those found in the Commentaries especially the two recently completed series published under the editorship of Nowack and Marti, respectively, and the Old Testament volumes of the International Critical Commentary, edited by Professors Briggs and Driver , and in many periodicals.

As to the arrangement of the work, the Editors decided at an early stage of their preparations to follow the Thesaurus, and the principal dictionaries of other Semitic languages, in classifying words according to their stems, and not to adopt the purely alphabetical order which has been common in Hebrew dictionaries. The relation of Semitic derivatives to the stems is such as to make this method of grouping them an obvious demand from the scientific point of view. It is true that practical objections to it may be offered, but these do not appear convincing.

One is that it compels the Editor to seem to decide, by placing each word under a given stem, some questions of etymology which in his own mind are still open. The number of such cases, however, is comparatively small, and the uncertainty can always be expressed by a word of caution.

The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew-English Lexicon by E. Brown | The Wandering Bookseller

And even if the objection were much more important it would be better to assume the burden of it, in order to give students of Hebrew, from the outset, the immense advantage of familiarity with the structure and formative laws of the Hebrew vocabulary in their daily work. Another objection incidental to this arrangement is thought to be the increased difficulty of reference. This difficulty will diminish rapidly as students advance in knowledge, and by the practice of setting words formed by prefix or affix-or otherwise hard for the beginner to trace-a second time in their alphabetical place, with cross-references, it is hoped to do away with the difficulty almost entirely.

The Aramaic of the Bible has been separated from the Hebrew, and placed by itself at the end of the book, as a separate and subordinate element of the language of the Old Testament. This is a change from that older practice which, since it was adopted here, has been made also by Siegfried and Stade, and by Buhl, and which the Editors believe will commend itself on grounds of evident propriety. The question of adding an English-Hebrew Index has been carefully considered. With reluctance it has been decided, for practical reasons, not to do so.

The original limits proposed for the Lexicon have already been far exceeded, and the additional time, space, and cost which an Index would require have presented a barrier which the Editors could not see their way to remove. The work has consumed a much longer time than was anticipated at the outset.


Twenty-three years have passed since it was undertaken, and nearly fifteen since the issue of the First Part, in June, Several causes have prevented an earlier completion of it. Not only have the Editors been engaged in the active duties of their professorships, to which they were obliged to subordinate even so important a work as this, but they have more than once encountered serious interruptions from unforeseen circumstances of a personal nature.

But, above all, the task itself has proved a greater one than they supposed it to be.

The new Brown - Driver - Briggs - Gesenius Hebrew and English lexicon

The field has been large, the questions have been many, and often difficult, the consideration of usage, involved, as it is, with that of textual changes and of fresh proposals in exegesis, has required an enormous amount of time; the study of etymologies is involved with masses of new material, rapidly increasing and as yet imperfectly published and digested; the critical discussion of the many related topics is of great extent and scattered through many books and periodicals. Even tentative conclusions can be reached often only through a careful weighing of facts yielded by prolong investigation.

And so the process has gone on year after year. The Editors are quite aware that the patience of purchasers has been put to a severe test. They would be glad to think that they may find in the result a partial compensation. They know, indeed that this result is far from perfect.

Their most earnest care has not been able to exclude errors; the First Part, in particular, was printed under unfavourable conditions, and the years since the earlier Parts were issued have brought new knowledge at many points. It was not possible, nor would it have been just to owners of these Parts, to make considerable changes in the plates. Such changes have been limited, almost wholly, to obvious misprints, and occasional errors in citation. A selected, and restricted, list of some of the more important Addenda et Corrigenda is appended to the volume.

The Editors venture to hope that in the future they may be able to utilize the additional material which is now in their hands. A list of abbreviations was issued with Part I. This has been now revised and enlarged, and it is hoped that by its aid the abbreviations made necessary by the fullness of reference, on the one hand, and the requirements of space, on the other, will be quite intelligible.

Thanks are due to many scholars who have shown an interest in the work, and have contributed to its value by their suggestions. Prominent among these are Professor Hermann L. Strack, D. Moore, D. Cook, Esq. Gottheil, Ph. Kirkpatrick, D. Sheppard, of Bromley, Kent, and others, have laid the Editors under obligation by sending important comments, or lists of corrections. Any further communications which may advance the cause of Hebrew scholarship, and promote a more thorough comprehension of the Old Testament Scriptures by supplying material for a possible future edition of the Lexicon, will be cordially welcomed.

It is impossible to bring this Preface to a close without especial reference to the relations between the Editors and their Publishers, in America and in England. The new Hebrew Lexicon owes its origins to Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin and Company, of Boston, Mass. The present editors were authorized by them to undertake the work as a revision of that book. The late Mr.

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Henry O. Houghton, senior member of the firm, gave the project his especial attention, devoting much time to personal conference with the American editors, and making a visit to Oxford for a discussion of the matter with Professor Driver, and with the Delegates of the Clarendon Press, whose co-operation he secured.

Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon --Part 2

It is a matter of deep regret that his life was not spared to see the completion of an enterprise in which he took so sympathetic an interest. We desire to record our appreciation of that interest, and of the considerable patience with which he-and the other members of this publishing house both before and since his death-have met the delays in finishing the work. We are under similar obligations to the Delegates of the Clarendon Press.

The Brown-Driver-Briggs-Gesenius Hebrew and English Lexicon The Brown-Driver-Briggs-Gesenius Hebrew and English Lexicon
The Brown-Driver-Briggs-Gesenius Hebrew and English Lexicon The Brown-Driver-Briggs-Gesenius Hebrew and English Lexicon
The Brown-Driver-Briggs-Gesenius Hebrew and English Lexicon The Brown-Driver-Briggs-Gesenius Hebrew and English Lexicon
The Brown-Driver-Briggs-Gesenius Hebrew and English Lexicon The Brown-Driver-Briggs-Gesenius Hebrew and English Lexicon
The Brown-Driver-Briggs-Gesenius Hebrew and English Lexicon The Brown-Driver-Briggs-Gesenius Hebrew and English Lexicon
The Brown-Driver-Briggs-Gesenius Hebrew and English Lexicon The Brown-Driver-Briggs-Gesenius Hebrew and English Lexicon
The Brown-Driver-Briggs-Gesenius Hebrew and English Lexicon The Brown-Driver-Briggs-Gesenius Hebrew and English Lexicon
The Brown-Driver-Briggs-Gesenius Hebrew and English Lexicon The Brown-Driver-Briggs-Gesenius Hebrew and English Lexicon

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